TEXAS BUSINESS AND COMMERCE CODE TITLE 1. 

UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE CHAPTER 2. 

SALES SUBCHAPTER A. SHORT TITLE, GENERAL CONSTRUCTION AND SUBJECT MATTER Sec. 2.101. SHORT TITLE. 

 

This chapter may be cited as Uniform Commercial Code--Sales. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. 

 

Sec. 2.102. SCOPE; CERTAIN SECURITY AND OTHER TRANSACTIONS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CHAPTER. Unless the context otherwise requires, this chapter applies to transactions in goods; it does not apply to any transaction which although in the form of an unconditional contract to sell or present sale is intended to operate only as a security transaction nor does this chapter impair or repeal any statute regulating sales to consumers, farmers or other specified classes of buyers. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. Sec. 2.103. 

 

DEFINITIONS AND INDEX OF DEFINITIONS. (a) In this chapter unless the context otherwise requires (1) "Buyer" means a person who buys or contracts to buy goods. (2) Reserved. (3) "Receipt" of goods means taking physical possession of them. (4) "Seller" means a person who sells or contracts to sell goods. 

 

Sec. 2.104. DEFINITIONS: "MERCHANT"; "BETWEEN MERCHANTS"; "FINANCING AGENCY". (a) "Merchant" means a person who deals in goods of the kind or otherwise by his occupation holds himself out as having knowledge or skill peculiar to the practices or goods involved in the transaction or to whom such knowledge or skill may be attributed by his employment of an agent or broker or other intermediary who by his occupation holds himself out as having such knowledge or skill. (b) "Financing agency" means a bank, finance company or other person who in the ordinary course of business makes advances against goods or documents of title or who by arrangement with either the seller or the buyer intervenes in ordinary course to make or collect payment due or claimed under the contract for sale, as by purchasing or paying the seller's draft or making advances against it or by merely taking it for collection whether or not documents of title accompany or are associated with the draft. "Financing agency" includes also a bank or other person who similarly intervenes between persons who are in the position of seller and buyer in respect to the goods (Section 2.707). (c) "Between merchants" means in any transaction with respect to which both parties are chargeable with the knowledge or skill of merchants. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. Amended by: Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 122 (S.B. 1593), Sec. 4, eff. September 1, 2005. 

 

Sec. 2.105. DEFINITIONS: TRANSFERABILITY; "GOODS"; "FUTURE" GOODS; "LOT"; "COMMERCIAL UNIT". (a) "Goods" means all things (including specially manufactured goods) which are movable at the time of identification to the contract for sale other than the money in which the price is to be paid, investment securities (Chapter 8) and things in action. "Goods" also includes the unborn young of animals and growing crops and other identified things attached to realty as described in the section on goods to be severed from realty (Section 2.107). (b) Goods must be both existing and identified before any interest in them can pass. Goods which are not both existing and identified are "future" goods. A purported present sale of future goods or of any interest therein operates as a contract to sell. (c) There may be a sale of a part interest in existing identified goods. (d) An undivided share in an identified bulk of fungible goods is sufficiently identified to be sold although the quantity of the bulk is not determined. Any agreed proportion of such a bulk or any quantity thereof agreed upon by number, weight or other measure may to the extent of the seller's interest in the bulk be sold to the buyer who then becomes an owner in common. (e) "Lot" means a parcel or a single article which is the subject matter of a separate sale or delivery, whether or not it is sufficient to perform the contract. (f) "Commercial unit" means such a unit of goods as by commercial usage is a single whole for purposes of sale and division of which materially impairs its character or value on the market or in use. A commercial unit may be a single article (as a machine) or a set of articles (as a suite of furniture or an assortment of sizes) or a quantity (as a bale, gross, or carload) or any other unit treated in use or in the relevant market as a single whole. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967

 

 Sec. 2.106. DEFINITIONS: "CONTRACT"; "AGREEMENT"; "CONTRACT FOR SALE"; "SALE"; "PRESENT SALE"; "CONFORMING" TO CONTRACT; "TERMINATION"; "CANCELLATION". (a) In this chapter unless the context otherwise requires "contract" and "agreement" are limited to those relating to the present or future sale of goods. "Contract for sale" includes both a present sale of goods and a contract to sell goods at a future time. A "sale" consists in the passing of title from the seller to the buyer for a price (Section 2.401). A "present sale" means a sale which is accomplished by the making of the contract. (b) Goods or conduct including any part of a performance are "conforming" or conform to the contract when they are in accordance with the obligations under the contract. (c) "Termination" occurs when either party pursuant to a power created by agreement or law puts an end to the contract otherwise than for its breach. On "termination" all obligations which are still executory on both sides are discharged but any right based on prior breach or performance survives. (d) "Cancellation" occurs when either party puts an end to the contract for breach by the other and its effect is the same as that of "termination" except that the cancelling party also retains any remedy for breach of the whole contract or any unperformed balance. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. 

 

SUBCHAPTER B. FORM, FORMATION AND READJUSTMENT OF CONTRACT 

 

Sec. 2.201. FORMAL REQUIREMENTS; STATUTE OF FRAUDS. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section a contract for the sale of goods for the price of $500 or more is not enforceable by way of action or defense unless there is some writing sufficient to indicate that a contract for sale has been made between the parties and signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought or by his authorized agent or broker. A writing is not insufficient because it omits or incorrectly states a term agreed upon but the contract is not enforceable under this paragraph beyond the quantity of goods shown in such writing. (b) Between merchants if within a reasonable time a writing in confirmation of the contract and sufficient against the sender is received and the party receiving it has reason to know its contents, it satisfies the requirements of Subsection (a) against such party unless written notice of objection to its contents is given within ten days after it is received. (c) A contract which does not satisfy the requirements of Subsection (a) but which is valid in other respects is enforceable (1) if the goods are to be specially manufactured for the buyer and are not suitable for sale to others in the ordinary course of the seller's business and the seller, before notice of repudiation is received and under circumstances which reasonably indicate that the goods are for the buyer, has made either a substantial beginning of their manufacture or commitments for their procurement; or (2) if the party against whom enforcement is sought admits in his pleading, testimony or otherwise in court that a contract for sale was made, but the contract is not enforceable under this provision beyond the quantity of goods admitted; or (3) with respect to goods for which payment has been made and accepted or which have been received and accepted (Section 2.606). Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. 

 

Sec. 2.204. FORMATION IN GENERAL. (a) A contract for sale of goods may be made in any manner sufficient to show agreement, including conduct by both parties which recognizes the existence of such a contract. (b) An agreement sufficient to constitute a contract for sale may be found even though the moment of its making is undetermined. (c) Even though one or more terms are left open a contract for sale does not fail for indefiniteness if the parties have intended to make a contract and there is a reasonably certain basis for giving an appropriate remedy. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967.

 

 Sec. 2.205. FIRM OFFERS. An offer by a merchant to buy or sell goods in a signed writing which by its terms gives assurance that it will be held open is not revocable, for lack of consideration, during the time stated or if no time is stated for a reasonable time, but in no event may such period of irrevocability exceed three months; but any such term of assurance on a form supplied by the offeree must be separately signed by the offeror. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. 

 

Sec. 2.309. ABSENCE OF SPECIFIC TIME PROVISIONS; NOTICE OF TERMINATION. (a) The time for shipment or delivery or any other action under a contract if not provided in this chapter or agreed upon shall be a reasonable time. (b) Where the contract provides for successive performances but is indefinite in duration it is valid for a reasonable time but unless otherwise agreed may be terminated at any time by either party. (c) Termination of a contract by one party except on the happening of an agreed event requires that reasonable notification be received by the other party and an agreement dispensing with notification is invalid if its operation would be unconscionable. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. 

 

Sec. 2.310. OPEN TIME FOR PAYMENT OR RUNNING OF CREDIT; AUTHORITY TO SHIP UNDER RESERVATION. Unless otherwise agreed (1) payment is due at the time and place at which the buyer is to receive the goods even though the place of shipment is the place of delivery; and (2) if the seller is authorized to send the goods he may ship them under reservation, and may tender the documents of title, but the buyer may inspect the goods after their arrival before payment is due unless such inspection is inconsistent with the terms of the contract (Section 2.513); and (3) if delivery is authorized and made by way of documents of title otherwise than by Subdivision (2) then payment is due regardless of where the goods are to be received: (A) at the time and place at which the buyer is to receive delivery of the tangible documents; or (B) at the time the buyer is to receive delivery of the electronic documents and at the seller's place of business or if none, the seller's residence; and (4) where the seller is required or authorized to ship the goods on credit the credit period runs from the time of shipment but post-dating the invoice or delaying its dispatch will correspondingly delay the starting of the credit period. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. Amended by: Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 122 (S.B. 1593), Sec. 5, eff. September 1, 2005. 

 

Sec. 2.708. SELLER'S DAMAGES FOR NON-ACCEPTANCE OR REPUDIATION. (a) Subject to Subsection (b) and to the provisions of this chapter with respect to proof of market price (Section 2.723), the measure of damages for non-acceptance or repudiation by the buyer is the difference between the market price at the time and place for tender and the unpaid contract price together with any incidental damages provided in this chapter (Section 2.710), but less expenses saved in consequence of the buyer's breach. (b) If the measure of damages provided in Subsection (a) is inadequate to put the seller in as good a position as performance would have done then the measure of damages is the profit (including reasonable overhead) which the seller would have made from full performance by the buyer, together with any incidental damages provided in this chapter (Section 2.710), due allowance for costs reasonably incurred and due credit for payments or proceeds of resale. Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. 

 

Sec. 2.326. SALE ON APPROVAL AND SALE OR RETURN; RIGHTS OF CREDITORS. (a) Unless otherwise agreed, if delivered goods may be returned by the buyer even though they conform to the contract, the transaction is (1) a "sale on approval" if the goods are delivered primarily for use, and (2) a "sale or return" if the goods are delivered primarily for resale. (b) Goods held on approval are not subject to the claims of the buyer's creditors until acceptance; goods held on sale or return are subject to such claims while in the buyer's possession. (c) Any "or return" term of a contract for sale is to be treated as a separate contract for sale within the statute of frauds section of this chapter (Section 2.201) and as contradicting the sale aspect of the contract within the provisions of this chapter on parol or extrinsic evidence (Section 2.202). Acts 1967, 60th Leg., p. 2343, ch. 785, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1967. Amended by Acts 1977, 65th Leg., p. 1530, ch. 623, Sec. 4, eff. Aug. 29, 1977; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 414, Sec. 2.16, eff. July 1, 2001. 

 

Sec. 3.502. DISHONOR. (a) Dishonor of a note is governed by the following rules: (1) If the note is payable on demand, the note is dishonored if presentment is duly made to the maker and the note is not paid on the day of presentment. (2) If the note is not payable on demand and is payable at or through a bank or the terms of the note require presentment, the note is dishonored if presentment is duly made and the note is not paid on the day it becomes payable or the day of presentment, whichever is later. (3) If the note is not payable on demand and Subdivision (2) does not apply, the note is dishonored if it is not paid on the day it becomes payable. (b) Dishonor of an unaccepted draft other than a documentary draft is governed by the following rules: (1) If a check is duly presented for payment to the payor bank otherwise than for immediate payment over the counter, the check is dishonored if the payor bank makes timely return of the check or sends timely notice of dishonor or nonpayment under Section 4.301 or 4.302, or becomes accountable for the amount of the check under Section 4.302. (2) If a draft is payable on demand and Subdivision (1) does not apply, the draft is dishonored if presentment for payment is duly made to the drawee and the draft is not paid on the day of presentment. (3) If a draft is payable on a date stated in the draft, the draft is dishonored if: (A) presentment for payment is duly made to the drawee and payment is not made on the day the draft becomes payable or the day of presentment, whichever is later; or (B) presentment for acceptance is duly made before the day the draft becomes payable and the draft is not accepted on the day of presentment. (4) If a draft is payable on elapse of a period of time after sight or acceptance, the draft is dishonored if presentment for acceptance is duly made and the draft is not accepted on the day of presentment. (c) Dishonor of an unaccepted documentary draft occurs according to the rules stated in Subsections (b)(2), (3), and (4), except that payment or acceptance may be delayed without dishonor until not later than the close of the third business day of the drawee following the day on which payment or acceptance is required by those subdivisions. (d) Dishonor of an accepted draft is governed by the following rules: (1) If the draft is payable on demand, the draft is dishonored if presentment for payment is duly made to the acceptor and the draft is not paid on the day of presentment. (2) If the draft is not payable on demand, the draft is dishonored if presentment for payment is duly made to the acceptor and payment is not made on the day it becomes payable or the day of presentment, whichever is later. (e) In any case in which presentment is otherwise required for dishonor under this section and presentment is excused under Section 3.504, dishonor occurs without presentment if the instrument is not duly accepted or paid. (f) If a draft is dishonored because timely acceptance of the draft was not made and the person entitled to demand acceptance consents to a late acceptance, from the time of acceptance the draft is treated as never having been dishonored. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996. 

 

Sec. 3.503. NOTICE OF DISHONOR. (a) The obligation of an indorser stated in Section 3.415(a) and the obligation of a drawer stated in Section 3.414(d) may not be enforced unless: (1) the indorser or drawer is given notice of dishonor of the instrument complying with this section; or (2) notice of dishonor is excused under Section 3.504(b). (b) Notice of dishonor may be given by any person; may be given by any commercially reasonable means, including an oral, written, or electronic communication; and is sufficient if it reasonably identifies the instrument and indicates that the instrument has been dishonored or has not been paid or accepted. Return of an instrument given to a bank for collection is sufficient notice of dishonor. (c) Subject to Section 3.504(c), with respect to an instrument taken for collection by a collecting bank, notice of dishonor must be given (i) by the bank before midnight of the next banking day following the banking day on which the bank receives notice of dishonor of the instrument, or (ii) by any other person within 30 days following the day on which the person receives notice of dishonor. With respect to any other instrument, notice of dishonor must be given within 30 days following the day on which dishonor occurs. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996. 

 

Sec. 3.504. EXCUSED PRESENTMENT AND NOTICE OF DISHONOR. (a) Presentment for payment or acceptance of an instrument is excused if: (1) the person entitled to present the instrument cannot with reasonable diligence make presentment; (2) the maker or acceptor has repudiated an obligation to pay the instrument or is dead or in insolvency proceedings; (3) by the terms of the instrument presentment is not necessary to enforce the obligation of indorsers or the drawer; (4) the drawer or indorser whose obligation is being enforced has waived presentment or otherwise has no reason to expect or right to require that the instrument be paid or accepted; or (5) the drawer instructed the drawee not to pay or accept the draft or the drawee was not obligated to the drawer to pay the draft. (b) Notice of dishonor is excused if (i) by the terms of the instrument notice of dishonor is not necessary to enforce the obligation of a party to pay the instrument, or (ii) the party whose obligation is being enforced waived notice of dishonor. A waiver of presentment is also a waiver of notice of dishonor. (c) Delay in giving notice of dishonor is excused if the delay was caused by circumstances beyond the control of the person giving the notice and the person giving the notice exercised reasonable diligence after the cause of the delay ceased to operate. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996. 

 

Sec. 3.505. EVIDENCE OF DISHONOR. (a) The following are admissible as evidence and create a presumption of dishonor and of any notice of dishonor stated: (1) a document regular in form as provided in Subsection (b) that purports to be a protest; (2) a purported stamp or writing of the drawee, payor bank, or presenting bank on or accompanying the instrument stating that acceptance or payment has been refused unless reasons for the refusal are stated and the reasons are not consistent with dishonor; (3) a book or record of the drawee, payor bank, or collecting bank that is kept in the usual course of business and that shows dishonor, even if there is no evidence of who made the entry. (b) A protest is a certificate of dishonor made by a United States consul or vice consul, or a notary public or other person authorized to administer oaths by the law of the place where dishonor occurs. It may be made on information satisfactory to that person. The protest must identify the instrument and certify either that presentment has been made or, if not made, the reason why it was not made, and that the instrument has been dishonored by nonacceptance or nonpayment. The protest may also certify that notice of dishonor has been given to some or all parties. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996. 

 

Sec. 3.506. PROCESSING FEE BY HOLDER OF PAYMENT DEVICE. (a) For purposes of this section, "payment device" means any check, item, paper or electronic payment, or other payment device used as a medium for payment. (b) On return of a payment device to the holder following dishonor of the payment device by a payor, the holder, the holder's assignee, agent, or representative, or any other person retained by the holder to seek collection of the face value of the dishonored payment device may charge the drawer or indorser a maximum processing fee of $30. (c) A person may not charge a processing fee to a drawer or indorser under this section if a reimbursement fee has been collected under Article 102.007(e), Code of Criminal Procedure. If a processing fee has been collected under this section and the holder subsequently receives a reimbursement fee collected under Article 102.007(e), Code of Criminal Procedure, the holder shall immediately refund the fee previously collected from the drawer or indorser. (d) Notwithstanding Subtitle B, Title 4, Finance Code, or any other law, a contract made under Subtitle B, Title 4, Finance Code, may provide that on return of a dishonored payment device given in payment under the contract, the holder may charge the obligor under the contract the processing fee authorized by this section, and the fee may be added to the unpaid balance owed under the contract. Interest may not be charged on the fee during the term of the contract. (e) This section does not affect any right or remedy to which the holder of a payment device may be entitled under any rule, written contract, judicial decision, or other statute. Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1420, Sec. 2.001(a), eff. Sept. 1, 2001; Amended by Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 413, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 2003. Amended by: Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 95 (S.B. 1563), Sec. 11, eff. September 1, 2005. Acts 2011, 82nd Leg., R.S., Ch. 333 (H.B. 2793), Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2011. Acts 2019, 86th Leg., R.S., Ch. 1352 (S.B. 346), Sec. 4.01, eff. January 1, 2020. 

 

Sec. 3.507. DELIVERY NOTIFICATION FEE BY HOLDER OF CHECK OR SIMILAR SIGHT ORDER. (a) On return of a check or similar sight order, as defined by Section 1.07, Penal Code, to the holder following dishonor of the check or sight order by a payor and prior to the check or sight order being referred for prosecution, the holder, the holder's assignee, agent, or representative, or any other person retained by the holder to seek collection of the dishonored check or sight order may charge the drawer or indorser of the check or sight order the cost of delivery notification by registered or certified mail with return receipt requested under Section 31.06 or Section 32.41, Penal Code, as applicable. (b) A person may not charge a delivery notification fee to a drawer or indorser under this section if the fee has been collected under Article 102.007(g), Code of Criminal Procedure. If a delivery notification fee has been collected under this section and the holder subsequently receives a fee collected under Article 102.007(g), Code of Criminal Procedure, the holder shall immediately refund the fee previously collected from the drawer or indorser. (c) This section does not affect any right or remedy to which the holder of a check or similar sight order may be entitled under any rule, written contract, judicial decision, or other statute, including Section 3.506. Added by Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 976 (S.B. 548), Sec. 4, eff. September 1, 2007. Amended by: Acts 2013, 83rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 128 (S.B. 821), Sec. 6, eff. September 1, 2013. 



 

SUBCHAPTER F. DISCHARGE AND PAYMENT 

 

Sec. 3.601. DISCHARGE AND EFFECT OF DISCHARGE. (a) The obligation of a party to pay the instrument is discharged as stated in this chapter or by an act or agreement with the party that would discharge an obligation to pay money under a simple contract. (b) Discharge of the obligation of a party is not effective against a person acquiring rights of a holder in due course of the instrument without notice of the discharge. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996. 

 

Sec. 3.602. PAYMENT. (a) Subject to Subsection (e), an instrument is paid to the extent payment is made by or on behalf of a party obliged to pay the instrument, and to a person entitled to enforce the instrument. (b) Subject to Subsection (e), a note is paid to the extent payment is made by or on behalf of a party obliged to pay the note to a person that formerly was entitled to enforce the note only if at the time of the payment the party obliged to pay has not received adequate notification that the note has been transferred and that payment is to be made to the transferee. A notification is adequate only if it is signed by the transferor or the transferee, reasonably identifies the transferred note, and provides an address at which payments subsequently are to be made. Upon request, a transferee shall seasonably furnish reasonable proof that the note has been transferred. Unless the transferee complies with the request, a payment to the person that formerly was entitled to enforce the note is effective for purposes of Subsection (c) even if the party obliged to pay the note has received a notification under this subsection. (c) Subject to Subsection (e), to the extent of a payment under Subsections (a) and (b), the obligation of the party obliged to pay the instrument is discharged even though payment is made with knowledge of a claim to the instrument under Section 3.306 by another person. (d) Subject to Subsection (e), a transferee, or any party that has acquired rights in the instrument directly or indirectly from a transferee, including any such party that has rights as a holder in due course, is deemed to have notice of any payment that is made under Subsection (b) after the date that the note is transferred to the transferee but before the party obliged to pay the note receives adequate notification of the transfer. (e) The obligation of a party to pay the instrument is not discharged under Subsections (a) through (d) if: (1) a claim to the instrument under Section 3.306 is enforceable against the party receiving payment and: (A) payment is made with knowledge by the payor that payment is prohibited by injunction or similar process of a court of competent jurisdiction; or (B) in the case of an instrument other than a cashier's check, teller's check, or certified check, the party making payment accepted, from the person having a claim to the instrument, indemnity against loss resulting from refusal to pay the person entitled to enforce the instrument; or (2) the person making payment knows that the instrument is a stolen instrument and pays a person it knows is in wrongful possession of the instrument. (f) As used in this section, "signed," with respect to a record that is not a writing, includes the attachment to or logical association with the record of an electronic symbol, sound, or process with the present intent to adopt or accept the record. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996. Amended by: Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 95 (S.B. 1563), Sec. 12, eff. September 1, 2005. 

 

Sec. 3.603. TENDER OF PAYMENT. (a) If tender of payment of an obligation to pay an instrument is made to a person entitled to enforce the instrument, the effect of tender is governed by principles of law applicable to tender of payment under a simple contract. (b) If tender of payment of an obligation to pay an instrument is made to a person entitled to enforce the instrument and the tender is refused, there is discharge, to the extent of the amount of the tender, of the obligation of an indorser or accommodation party having a right of recourse with respect to the obligation to which the tender relates. (c) If tender of payment of an amount due on an instrument is made to a person entitled to enforce the instrument, the obligation of the obligor to pay interest after the due date on the amount tendered is discharged. If presentment is required with respect to an instrument and the obligor is able and ready to pay on the due date at every place of payment stated in the instrument, the obligor is deemed to have made tender of payment on the due date to the person entitled to enforce the instrument. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 921, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1996